During the three debates, the peace process was not central to most Members. While the backstop received 795 mentions in the three debates we analysed, the “Good Friday Agreements” and the “Belfast Agreements” – two terms that describe the same agreement – together received only 90. This indicates that the discussion on the “backstop” was not generally related to the agreement. On 15 January 2019, the British Parliament rejected a government request to approve a draft withdrawal agreement. At the end of January 2019, many Pro-Brexit Tory and DUP MPs remained opposed to an unsealed backstop, fearing they would indefinitely link the UK to many EU rules.  In subsequent votes, most conservative rebels voted in favour of the withdrawal agreement and the backstop, although the DUP continued to oppose it, contributing to its prolonged defeat. The opposition was despite an opinion poll by LucidTalk (published on 6 December 2018) which found that 65% of Northern Ireland voters were in favour of a Brexit that saw Northern Ireland as the EU single market and customs union.  On 28 January 2019, May objected to the backstop she and the EU had approved and called on the Conservatives to vote in favour of a Backbench amendment replacing backstop with unspecified “alternative arrangements.”   In the context of Brexit, a “hard border” means a border where there are a limited number of authorized (and physically controlled) border crossings, occupied by customs officers and police officers and supported by military personnel in times of tension.  Drivers of vehicles crossing the vehicle must report goods during transport, commercial carriers must submit bill of lading and prove that the goods meet the minimum standards of the area concerned. Tariffs (in the form of tariffs) may be due.  This was the position at the border between 1923 and the Single European Act of 1993.  (In this context, a “hard border” does not mean a fortified border, but during the unrest British security forces blocked many unauthorized crossing points for security reasons.
In accordance with the provisions of the Common Travel Area, British and Irish citizens are free to cross the border without passport control. One of Boris Johnson`s first steps as Prime Minister was to roll back the so-called “backstop” rule, which has proved to be the most controversial part of the Brexit deal negotiated between Theresa May and the EU. The backstop would temporarily keep the UK in the CUSTOMS union of the European Union until a lasting solution is found, which would avoid a hard border between the Republic of Ireland and the northern province. US Senator George Mitchell, who led the belfast agreement negotiations, said he believed the creation of a border control system between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland could jeopardise the deal.  Surveys published on 18 February 2019 by Irish Senator Mark Daly and two UNESCO Presidents indicated that the reintroduction of a hard border would lead to the return of violence.     Kit Malthouse was awarded as a convener to an agreement reached between the Conservative Party`s limited groups on Brexit on 29 January 2019.  The proposal consisted of two parts. Plan A was the re-opening of the withdrawal agreement with the EU and the renegotiation of the backstop. Britain`s transition period would also be extended, giving more time to agree on future relations. Plan B looked like a managed “no deal.” The Malthouse compromise was seen by some Leavers as a complement to the Graham Brady amendment: in short, it was intended to replace the backstop with another that would either allow a smooth transition to an agreement or create a triple safety net if there was no agreement.